In the absence of a reliable water supply and purification infrastructure, India experiences high water stress, especially in the arid regions. Water stress is exacerbated by the skew between withdrawals (i.e., domestic, agricultural, and industrial water uses) and available renewable water supplies.
This leads to water scarcity and an excessive dependence on groundwater to meet water needs. This groundwater passes through fluoride-rich rocks, which dissolve the fluoride, and the water has an unacceptable level of fluoride. This results in brackish water that is salty in taste and contaminated with fluoride, the reason behind multiple health issues.